Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc. Bocas del Toro, etc. Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc. Saint Kitts and Nevis: Saint Pierre and Miquelon: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: City of San Marino, etc.
Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc. Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc. Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc. Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc. Port of Spain, etc.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc. Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc. Adorama in online store Adorama. Tmart in online store Tmart. Shooppingo in online store Shooppingo.
GearBest in online store GearBest. The Hut in online store The Hut. Walmart in online store Walmart. NewFrog in online store NewFrog. DHgate in online store DHgate. DealExtreme in online store DealExtreme. Zapals in online store Zapals. SheIn in online store SheIn. TrendsGal in online store TrendsGal. Early projects included a training center in New York which taught recruited agents the craft of espionage - such things as street and electronic surveillance and the use of disappearing inks, codes, and ciphers - and the bugging of the hotels and automobiles of key Arab United Nations delegations.
There were from the outset, however, American targets as well. Jensen, offering to pay him for classified information and documents. Jensen pretended to accept the bait, and under the guidance of the FBI and the Justice Department, passed carefully selected material to two Israeli contacts named Abramski and Nevoth these names are from a declassified State Department document in which only last names are given.
When Jensen was reassigned to Washington, Abramski and Nevoth followed to continue the arrangement. As the Israelis had no diplomatic immunity in this country, the State and Justice Departments concurred in writing that prosecution should proceed under both the Foreign Agent Registration Act and applicable US espionage laws. Nevertheless, for reasons I have so far been unable to determine, Abramski and Nevoth apparently were not arrested and prosecuted.
The FBI's primary concern was the safety of classified documents on weapons-related technology, which were stored at Apollo. Frequent visitors from Israel had access to the documents, and one of those visitors, Rafael Eitan, was known to have Israeli intelligence connections.
Yes, it's the same Rafael Eitan involved in the Pollard case. Further, the security clearances of Dr. Yosef Langotsky, who came to the FBI's attention shortly after his assignment in mid to the Israeli Embassy in Washington as assistant army attach'e. Langotsky repeatedly wandered into secure areas at the Pentagon, and clumsily tried to recruit Pentagon employees to commit espionage.
After several warnings to the Israeli Embassy, the Defense Department simply refused him all cooperation and any access to the Pentagon. In early , Langotsky was quietly recalled to Israel by his government. Several of his colleagues had reported the individual for what they thought were security improprieties involving Israeli military and intelligence officials. No classified material was located during the search, though hundreds of the college's library books were found which had been obtained fraudulently and subsequently mutilated or destroyed.
The Defense Department turned the matter over to a federal prosecutor. In an arrangement with the prosecutor, the individual pleaded guilty in federal district court in Alexandria, Va. The arrangement included his immediate resignation as a civilian staff member of the Defense Intelligence Agency, of which the college is part.
None of the security aspects of the case were ever brought to trial. The individual involved is currently director of Mideast studies at a university in the Washington, D. Pollard said he could understand his son's feelings when he learned the US was not sharing with Israel the intelligence information it had on gas plants in Syria [and] impending PLO attacks from Lebanon.
The image here is of a bright young American Jew deeply torn between his concern about the survival of Israel and his duty as a US intelligence official to protect his own country's security secrets. There's a certain logic to this image, and even some elements of truth. But this is not why Jonathan Pollard is serving a life sentence.
There is more to the story. S OON after Pollard's arrest in November , his Defense Investigative Service and FBI interrogators became convinced that much if not most of the "take" in fact had nothing to do with Israel's essential national security interests.
The problem was essentially this, The Defense Investigative Service and the FBI knew from lists hidden in Pollard's desk that he had been very specifically tasked. That is, his Israeli handlers had developed intelligence requirements for particular documents, by name and number. Initially, this indicated the possibility of another agent - the infamous "Mr. X" - who was pointing the operation toward the documents Pollard was to steal. In a polygraph interrogation, however, Pollard confirmed what US defense officials already suspected: One of the first documents he'd been asked to take was a huge compendium of current classified military documents which is updated every three months.
This lists and describes tens of thousands of documents - a virtual road map for Pollard's handlers. No need for Mr.
So what Pollard took was exactly what the Israelis wanted. But what did they want? The initial shock came when the FBI analyzed the 25 documents found in a suitcase Anne Pollard had removed from their apartment on her husband's instructions, after he was first questioned at the Pentagon. The question "Is there a Mr. Now there was a new question: The transcripts, together with computer records at the Defense Intelligence Agency and within the agency, at the Defense Intelligence College , where Pollard gained access to many of the stolen documents, have subsequently revealed that much of the operation's take had nothing to do with the Middle East at all - it contained details of US and Soviet intelligence, communications and military capabilities.
This included, according to the government's Memorandum in Aid of Sentencing, "details about US ship positions, aircraft stations, tactics, and training operations. This concern was heightened when, during the Pollard investigation, a Soviet defector in US hands revealed that in addition to the two Soviet spies serving prison terms in Israel Shabtai Kalmanovitch and Marcus Klingberg , there was a third who had not been caught. He was well placed in the Defense Ministry, and still "active.
A second theme of Pollard's supporters is that the sentence was too harsh because the compromised documents, however voluminous and important, were sent to an ally. They question whether much damage was in fact done. The issue is fairly joined here, because it was almost certainly Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger's page classified submission to the court about damage to US security which led Judge Aubrey Robinson to issue a life sentence.
In the months since Pollard went to prison, his supporters have taken Mr. Weinberger to task for his role in the sentencing process. Dershowitz has characterized Weinberger's statements as "dirty pool. Wolf Blitzer is a bit more circumspect in his book, admitting that Pollard had indeed damaged national security. But he adds the curious caveat that much of the damage had been contained, "because of the exposure of the operation" and because "US and Israeli intelligence -officials have cooperated - albeit not completely - to repair the damage.
Among the things Pollard sent to the Israelis, according to government submissions, were: None of the documents recouped in his apartment were excised: None of the documents returned by the Israeli government had been excised. The compromised documents, in other words, revealed all details about the intelligence sources and methods used to collect the information.
Even if Pollard had tried to-excise sources and methods, he did not have the competence to do so. We are speaking about hundreds of thousands of pages, thousands of documents, and hundreds of subjects. The information compromised included US military satellite photographs. If a foreign intelligence organization simply sees the photograph in a technical journal, all it has is the subject in the photo, the fact that the National Security Agency is interested, and some indication of the power and resolution of the satellite cameras.
But if foreign analysts get their hands on the original or even a good photocopy of the photo itself, they also get all the telemetry data that was printed around the edges - the location, distance, altitude, altitude and degree of angle of the satellite, among other things. With this information in foreign hands, the NSA must reposition, or even change the orbit of the satellite, at great expense, and the element of surprise is lost.
This is what Weinberger meant when he referred to "[the loss of] national assets which have taken many years, great effort, and enormous national resources to secure," Three separate Defense Department sources who took part in the Pollard operation damage exercise have been unable or unwilling to put a specific dollar figure on the loss. But all three have, independently referred to "several billions of dollars" as a rough estimate, with the vast majority of that loss occurring to the technical collection resources of the NSA.
And at that, we haven't counted the networks destroyed and the extreme personal risks caused for spies whose identities, locations, and activities were revealed.
It makes virtually no difference that the pages went to Israel as opposed to, say, Czechoslovakia. No modern national security apparatus would risk many lives or billions of dollars on operations whose security it no longer controlled. Once it is gone, it's gone. If Pollard had taken half the material and mailed it to KGB headquarters in Moscow, and had merely given the other half to a friend in Bethesda, Md.
In this case, the material went to a foreign power whose intelligence services the US had reason to believe were already penetrated by the Soviets. Former CIA director Richard Helms was recently asked in connection with Pollard, whether the US should distinguish between those who sell secrets to friends on the one hand, or enemies on the other. His answer was, no, it shouldn't, "for the simple reason that we don't know about the security of those other governments.
Helms's comment underscores another important point about the "take" in the Pollard operation: It is only the government of Israel, meaning the entirety of its security establishment, that could have used the voluminous material stolen in this case.
In his book, Mr. Blitzer is very careful to point out that when Mr. Peres became prime minister in September shortly after Pollard was recruited , Mr. Eitan "was asked to give up his counter terrorism responsibility. My source for this is Thomas Pickering, then US ambassador to Israel, who, when Eitan's name became connected to the case, was asked by the State Department about the man's ties to the prime minister. He responded as indicated above in a "Secret" telegram No. It was declassified in in response to a freedom of information request from this writer.
Perhaps the most embarrassing aspect of the Pollard matter, from Israel's standpoint, and the primary reason that those directly involved would like to see the Pollards released and the issue permanently resolved and out of the news, is the question of the policy context for the operation. Was Pollard the first person to spy for Israel against the US, or was he only the first one to be caught doing so, or was he only the first one to be caught and prosecuted!
You would be correct if you answered "none of the above. Blitzer distinguishes between "friendly espionage" and the nasty kind where agents are recruited and money is paid for information. The former is collected by overt technical means or by the reports of military and other accredited attaches. This Israel has done to America, and the US does to Israel, and everybody does to everybody else,-B-ut for decades, Blitzer maintains, the US and Israel have abided by an agreement not to spy on each other the nasty way.
That is provable nonsense. The Israeli government is even less equivocal on this matter than Blitzer. Shortly after Pollard's arrest, Prime Minister Peres issued a statement which said, in part: Not now, not when Pollard was recruited, and not at any time going back to the very establishment of Israel's first embassies in Washington and at the United Nations in The list in the accompanying article is by no means complete.
Documentary evidence exists of similar cases. Why are they not better known! Because prior to Jonathan Pollard, according to one senior FBI counterespionage official, "95 percent of the cases developed resulted in declinations [to prosecute]. The cases were dropped at the last moment. Pollard was certainly not the first and he probably won't be the last Israeli spy in America: He was just the most effective.
That said, my sense is that many if not most in the US intelligence and military communities would be delighted to accommodate Pollard's family and supporters, and release the man and his wife to their adopted country. It would depend on what the US could get in trade, perhaps in a three-way deal involving the Soviets and their spies now in Israeli jails.
There is generally no rancor in Washington toward Pollard personally. And in any event, the damage is already done. But you can be sure that whatever has happened in the past, the next Israeli caught spying in America will be treated as a spy. Their discussions, according to Bruce Rice, NUMEC's security manager, "concerned the possibility of developing plutonium-fueled, thermo-electric generator systems in the 5- and milliwatt power level.
The Israelis were particularly interested in 10 generators in the 5-milliwatt range, which would be fueled by about 2 grams of plutonium. During a meeting with then-U. The late Carl Duckett, former CIA deputy director, found it "hard to reconcile Shapiro not recalling Lahav when the matter was first raised, but subsequently thinking he was the man he met in Pittsburgh," Duckett wrote in a letter to Henry Myers, former Udall aide, in response to Shapiro's unsworn testimony during an informal meeting with Udall's subcommittee in Shapiro also said he met the head of Israel's military intelligence during his trips there.
But, Shapiro said, he had no knowledge of Israel's nuclear weapons capabilities. Again, Duckett doubted Shapiro. Given Shapiro's background, his interest in Israel and "his contacts with senior Israeli officials concerned with nuclear matters, Continuing speculation After about a decade of investigations, federal authorities could not find significant evidence that Shapiro diverted uranium to the Israelis.
But that didn't end speculation. To bolster his argument, Hersh points to the large quantities of uranium found, according to the NRC, when the Apollo plant was decommissioned and taken apart in the s. In an interview with the Valley News Dispatch, former Udall aide Myers, who is not represented in a positive light in Hersh's book, questioned the validity of Hersh's claims and wondered why more people did not criticize the book.
Federal agents also considered the possibility that NUMEC's partnership with Israel on food irradiation made it easier to smuggle uranium out of the country.
The worker, whose name is deleted in a November FBI document, told agents he believed the losses in uranium occurred about the same time NUMEC was involved in developing and manufacturing at least one large irradiator and several smaller units called "Howitzers" and shipping them to Israel.
The employee believed if enriched uranium was to be illegally shipped to Israel, "it would have been a simple matter of placing the material in these food irradiator units in large quantities and shipped to Israel with no questions asked," according to the FBI report.
No one would have opened or examined them or had reason to question their contents. Shapiro insisted to Congressional investigators that such a phone did not exist and that the telex machines at NUMEC were ordinary. Some of the missing material also was likely buried as waste on the plant site, he said. Diversion or sloppy records? Seaborg wrote to U.
Therefore, it cannot be said unequivocally that theft or diversion has not taken place. The losses were way beyond what we would have anticipated. We felt that Shapiro was deliberately negligent to cover the losses. News of the buried waste came as a surprise to the AEC, according to an Aug.
Shapiro stated this new source of valuable waste was contained in about drums of scraps and cleanup material. The buried waste was exhumed in October , but only six kilograms of uranium - 56 kilograms short of what Shaprio said should be there - of nuclear material was recovered.
Why was he going public on television? All this did was get him in trouble in life. The thing about Duckett is he had no reason to lie. This is the second of three parts regarding the history of the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corp. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures.
Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred.
Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Generally, a film director controls a films artistic and dramatic aspects, the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film, the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed.
Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions, there are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers, film editors or actors, other film directors have attended a film school. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors dialogue, while others control every aspect. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners, some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films.
Realizing this vision includes overseeing the artistic and technical elements of production, as well as directing the shooting timetable. This entails organizing the crew in such a way as to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful. Moreover, it is necessary to have an eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus. Thus the director ensures that all involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film.
The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as a jigsaw puzzle with egos. It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when, omnipresent are the boundaries of the films budget. Additionally, the director may also have to ensure an intended age rating, thus, the position of film director is widely considered to be a highly stressful and demanding one.
It has been said that hour days are not unusual, under European Union law, the film director is considered the author or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a directors film reflects the directors personal creative vision. It is the center and the technology hub of Israel, with a population of , Tel Aviv is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel, Tel Aviv is also a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi.
Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron Huldai, Tel Aviv is a global city, and is the thirty eighth most important financial center in the world. Tel Aviv is known to have the third-largest economy of any city in the Middle East after Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City, the city receives over a million international visitors annually. Known as The City that Never Sleeps and a party capital, it has a lively nightlife, the city was founded in by Jewish immigrants on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa.
It is named after the Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzls novel, Altneuland, the modern citys first neighbourhoods had already been established in , the first being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffas, Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in , two years after the establishment of the State of Israel.
The name was chosen in from several suggestions, including Herzliya and it was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for spring, symbolizing renewal, and tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient.
Although founded in as a settlement on the sand dunes North of Jaffa.